Harapan Lumban Gaol
Director Social Protection for Victim of Social Disaster, Ministry of Social Affairs Indonesia
The World Trade Center (WTC) incident in New York, USA on September 11, 2001, was known as "September Gray", which injured 3,000 peoples, has put terrorism as a global issue affecting the political policies of all the countries in the world. Bali Bombing Tragedy and other terrors were the harsh history experienced by Indonesia related with these global and national problems.
The 2016 Global Terrorism Index data that is released by The Institute for Economic and Peace, University of Maryland, USA showed that during the period 2014 to 2015, destructive radical actions were undertaken mainly by five radical groups (Boko Haram, ISIS, Taliban, Militant Fulani and Al- Shabbab) which has caused more than 18,444 deaths and 12,472 wounded.
Indonesia became one of the delegates at the Saudi-US Anti-Terrorism Summit in Riyadh, UAE on May 20, 2017 in the Forum on "Countering Extremism and Terrorism". In the G-20 Summit Conference in Hamburg, Germany, July 7-8, 2017, President Jokowi became the keynote speaker on the issue of counter-terrorism, one of the main points of that issue was the development of community participation in the prevention of radicalism through Social organizations such as Nahdatul Ulama (NU) and Muhamadiyah. Therefore government of the world and Indonesia as well have raised radicalism and terrorism as very serious issue, connected with humanitarian crime, transnational crime which requires the significant role of government, society and all related sectors in handling it.
Recently, the incidents of terrorism action in Indonesia seem increased. Until now there are 14 major incidents and caused 839 people injured and 273 people died. Therefore, mass media mention that that Indonesia has entered the emergency phase of radicalism. Besides, data from The Government of Turkey showed that of a total 4,957 ISIS foreign militants captured in Turkey, Russia is the largest contributor (804 people) followed by 435 people from Indonesia (news.com.au).
Recently the menace of terror in the world begins to shift, no longer coming from radical groups, but acted by individuals who have an extreme understanding which is termed lone wolf. Lone wolf is a person that has no direct affiliation with terrorist groups, they are radicalized through internet, you tube, and inspired from the experience of war in Syria or Iraq. They operate without being commanded by anyone, leaderless and very dangerous because it can perform random attacks. The stabbing action to and injured police (Brimob) members in Falatehan Mosque in Jakarta in June 2017 was one form of the lone wolf terror.
Terrorism is born from the idea of radicalism, a person becomes "radical" because of the factors of disappointment, injustice, poverty and other marginalization aspect. The Encyclopedia of Indonesia states that radicalism is all of the political flow, whose followers want to change the situation using violence, drastically and extremely. Ermaya (2006) mentions that efforts to change the political situation without taking into account the existing rules, constitutional, political, social provisions. The movement of radicalism in general is affected by some motives (Bambang, 2011): tribalism (ethnicity), nationalism or separatism, poverty gaps (poverty and economic disadvantage) and globalization, non democracy, violations of human dignity (dehumanization), religious radicalism.
Handling issues of radicalism and terrorism has been a serious agenda for Government of Indonesia. To counter this problem, Indonesia has enacted some regulations. Presidential Regulation 46/ 2010 on the National Agency for Combating Terrorism (BNPT) for instance is one of the regulation to underline that Indonesia is concerned with this issue. Several regulation including memorandum of understanding among ministries and institutions have also been signed as the instruments to combat the problems.
According to Law 11/2009 on Social Welfare, MoSA roles to implement poverty alleviation and social protection for the ultra poor and poor people by providing social rehabilitation, empowerment, to the poor in terms of individuals, families, groups and or communities. Law No. 24/2007 on Disaster Management states that the disaster consists of natural disasters, non natural disasters and social disasters. Terror is classified as a social disaster, besides social conflicts.
In Law 7/2012 on Handling of Social Conflict and Government Regulation 2/2015 on The Implementing Regulation of The Law 7/ 2012, there are 3 phases of handling social conflict (including radicalism) namely prevention phase, emergency response phase and recovery phase. MoSA has been providing several programs and activities in running this policy.
Prevention programs are the heart of the approaches to strengthen people detecting conflicts, primordial issues including radicalism and terrorism as well as to take role to handle situation. Reviving and mobilizing local wisdom, local genuine and local cultures which support the social harmony is the main efforts to keep people living in peaceful. In other words recognition of local or existing culture is an important aspect in defending the nation from various threats including radicalism and terrorism. Recruiting and building the capacity of local actors are important to strengthen social trust in grass root level. Social assistance in terms of cash transfer to the group of people (priority given to most potential conflict or poor areas) utilized for rebuilding local culture and wisdom as an instrument to counteract radicalism thought.
MoSA also has an approach to strengthening social harmonization in the community as an effort to prevent social conflict including radicalism and extremism. Through several programs such as Social Harmony Program, Socially and Inclusively Resilient Village, Local Wisdom Forum, MoSA empowers community actors (cultural figures, religious leaders, youth leaders, women leaders) to be seriously involved in the peace building processes (group dialogues, identifying citizens’ needs, discussing and determining the type of activities, etc). The main notion of Community-Based Social Harmony and Socially and Exclusively Resilient Village is to revive, develop and maintain the common life of the community, togetherness, and solidarity among fellow citizens. The Pancasila values, the four pillars of nationalism, peace and anti-radicalism and terrorism are those values integrated in thematic dialogue in the programs.
The Peace Actors (Pelopor Perdamaian) recruited and empowered MoSA are equipped with an understanding of early detection of potential conflicts, indications of radicalism and other social disaster, in accordance with article 3 letter (f) PP No. 2 Year 2015 on peace education and training. The actors or pioneer of peace building are expected to early detect threat of radicalism spread, take quick response and submit regular report to local government. The perform as agents of delivering peace message and social harmonization in society.
Emergency Response Phase
The emergency response phase aimed to provide quick assistance at the emergency situation to the victims. According to regulation MoSA provides protection in the form of fulfillment of basic needs (logistics) and refugee management. The process of handling the displacement of terrorism victims by MoSA refers to the Humanitarian Charter and Minimum Standards in Disaster Response (Project Sphere) so that the management of disaster victims in the evacuation place has met the basic rights of refugees. Every victims must be protected and provided with basic needs. People with specific needs must be put on priority such as children, disabled people, elderly.
In the period of January 23 to April 23, 2017, Center for Social Rehabilitation for Children Against Law (Panti Sosial Marsudi Putra Handayani, PSMP) owned by MoSA received referrals of 152 Indonesian citizens deported from various countries: Turkey, Hong Kong, Taiwan, Japan, Brunei Darussalam. The assessment results conducted by social workers showed some important information including: (1) 90% of deportants have a desire to migrate to the country of Sham because they believe the end of a safe and blessed country is the country of Sham; (2) wanting to live better; (3) poor social relations, showing average silence, cold withdrawal, indifference, lack of communication; (4) feeling disappointed can not emigrate to Syria, but they accept because it has become the will of God.
PSMP Handayani provides facilities to the deportants in the form of: (1) the fulfillment of the basic needs (shelter, food, clothing); (2) psychological examination (formal test method, personality test); (3) psychosocial therapy (catharsis, cognitive therapy, static group, national insight and religious insight). Deportants were then reunited and reintegrated into their families and communities of origin. In implementing this program, PSMP Handayani team collaborated with Ministry of Religious Affairs of Indonesia, Densus 88, BNPT (National Agency for Combating Terrorism), C-Save and the Center of the Terrorism Study and Social Conflict, Faculty of Psychology, Universitas Indonesia - ISPI.
Terror incidents can have an impact on individuals, families and communities. Several situations and implications on the psychological aspects of the individual include anxiety, deep sadness, alertness, unsafe conditions, frustration, loss and a state of disruption that affects human social life. To mitigate the suffering experienced by the victims or their family, MoSA provide them with cash compensation both for the wounded and also for the dead victims. During the post-emergency recovery period, MoSA through trained personnel provide post-psycosocial support services (Layanan Dukungan Psikososial) for the victims. For other victims of (social) disasters, MoSA can provide special assistance such as housing relocation and construction, temporary daily allowances.
The Way Forward
To ensure that ex terrorists are totally unified and integrated with their family and live together in a harmonious communities, we need to ensure that they can fulfil their basic needs. To prevent them going back to their “old community” (radical group), government needs to protect their livelihood including social protection (home, income, health, education). For this reason MoSA will initiate to strengthen the ex terrorists and their family with economic empowerment, integrating into social protection schemes, social facilitating. Rice for the poor, conditional cash transfer, group-based socioeconomic scheme (KUBE), are among other social protection schemes that are properly distributed to them (Law 13/2011 The Poverty Alleviation for the Ultra Poor). From this point of view, handling terrorism is not only the matter of wrong ideology, but also the matter of poverty, gaps, marginalization and stupidity.
Finally, preventing radicalism is much better than recovering it which then will need expensive cost and long term efforts. Government and MoSA comes to ensure that the community is able to maintain its resilience not only to to prevent but also to handle it.
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